South and Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Challenges · Agroforestry · Livelihoods

Landscape Profile

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South and Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Approximate size (hectares)





Tropical Wet

Production Systems

Cloves, Cocoa, Coffee, Durian, Pepper


The provinces of South and Southeast Sulawesi are home to two landscapes, each made up of two adjacent districts. The landuse systems, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic conditions are consistent within each of the two locations. In Southeast Sulawesi (Konawe and Kolaka) cacao, pepper and durian are the priority tree crops. Cacao is the most dominant species in the smallholder landscape and the single greatest source of smallholder income. Landholdings per household are about 3 ha. Fallowed land accounts for about 1/3rd of family holdings. There are multiple ethnic groups within the area, usually living in separate communities but easily interacting. In South Sulawesi (Bantaeng and Bulukumba) the farming systems are much more diversified, with coffee, cloves, cacao, and durian being key tree crops. Multiple species tree gardens, rice, corn and vegetables are also common in the landscape. Landholdings per family are about 1 ha, with little fallowed land.

The AgFor project works in a variety of areas within South and Southeast Sulawesi in Indonesia. It works with communities and government actors to better manage landscapes collaboratively. The project divides its effort into three topics: environment and livelihoods, led by World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), and governance, led by CIFOR. The people grow a variety of crops and there is special interest within the project in agroforestry systems. Within all three components there is a focus on gender and equity in livelihood systems (agroforestry production and marketing), environmental services, and participatory governance.

Voices From The Field

I am anthropologist with over 25 years experience working in Indonesia. I was brought onto the AgFor project as a consultant, to help make sure that gender equity was achieved. I love working in Indonesia; and the people implementing the project are also good friends of mine. I have longstanding interests in gender research, so it was an excellent fit.

Carol J. Pierce Colfer Senior Associate; Visiting Scholar, CIFOR/Cornell University

I am an agroforestry and natural resource management specialist with 34 years of experience, including 27 years of in Southeast and South Asia, and 18 years residing in Indonesia. My research focuses on smallholder tree farming systems for livelihood enhancement, carbon storage and sustainable environmental management. I have a strong understanding of smallholder agroforestry systems and I design/implement my research of those systems with emphasis on tree germplasm and domestication, on-farm productivity, and markets and marketing to improve smallholder farmers’ agroforestry systems and livelihoods. I maintain a diverse network of partners, including donors, other researchers, government agencies, non-government and conservation organizations, universities, communities, and farmers.

Dr. James (Jim) Roshetko Leader, Trees and Markets Unit, Southeast Asia, World Agroforestry Centre

Major Successes


Tracking change in terms of gender equity

The AgFor project has developed a set of indicators that we are using to assess changes that take place, in terms of gender equity, in the landscapes as the project progresses. The project is working to integrate concerns for the domestic needs of men and women, as we consider how best to integrate all their voices in local landscape governance. We have found the women in our sites to have stronger voices in Southeast Sulawesi, vis a vis South Sulawesi; but to have stronger voices generally than in many other parts of the world. We have also found that women take the lead role in commodity marketing (sales at the farm gate), while men take the lead role in production. This has important implication for capacity building activities related to both production and marketing systems, and emphasizes the importance of men and women sharing their knowledge and capacity with each other.

Working Together

ICRAF is the lead institution for this project, with CIFOR as collaborating one. These institutions partner with NGOs in the two provinces, with someone from headquarters often in the field. There are close connections with government actors as well, as part of the purpose is to strengthen both local and government actors. There is further supervision from Bogor offices. The field teams have worked to bring local practices and government goals together in a mutually beneficial and comfortable way.

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